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Are carbon nanotubes graphene?
Both graphene, and carbon nanotubes, are made from carbon atoms. Graphene is a one-layer graphite layer, the most fundamental structural unit of graphite. Carbon nanotubes are made by curling graphene. Carbon nanotubes, which are made up of hexagonal tubes of several tens layers of carbon atoms, are formed by arranging the atoms in hexagons. Carbon nanotubes look like graphene (a hexagonal lattice made of carbon) that has been rolled into cylindrical form. Both graphene (a hexagonal lattice of carbon) and carbon nanotubes are characterized by extraordinary mechanical and electrical properties.

Research on carbon nanotubes, in terms of preparation, performance characterization, and application exploration, has reached a certain level of depth and breadth. Due to their close relationship, both research methods and composition are very similar. Carbon nanotube research was the original inspiration for many graphene-related research methods.

What is different between carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene?

Graphene can be described as a two dimensional material. It is a graphite layer with carbon atoms arranged into a hexagonal honeycomb pattern. Carbon nanotubes consist of hollow cylinders. They are basically a graphene layer rolled into an octagonal cylinder. Both are representative of two-dimensional nanomaterials (2D) as well as one-dimensional (1D).

Carbon nanotubes are one-dimensional carbon crystal structures, whereas graphene is only composed of a single carbon layer and is a real two-dimensional carbon crystal structure.

From a performance perspective, graphene exhibits properties that are comparable or even superior to those of carbon nanotubes. These include high electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity; high carrier mobility; free-electron space and high strength and rigidity.

According to the number layers, they are divided into single walled carbon nanotubes and multiple-walled graphene. The single-walled carbon Nanotubes are also divided. Layer graphene or graphene microplatelets.

Is graphene a stronger material than carbon nanotubes

Both graphite and carbon nanotubes are graphite in essence. But the arrangement and combinations of carbon atoms differ, creating spiral carbon nanotubes or sheet-shaped graphene. They both share some graphite characteristics.
In the long-term, graphene has a superior ability to transfer its strength and mechanical properties into the host material than carbon nanotubes. While carbon nanotubes are achieving similar results, graphene has more advantages over the long term.

While graphene, carbon nanotubes share a common pre-existence they will likely have a very different future. The dispute between two-dimensional and three-dimensional material is the primary cause. Nanowires and microtubes often have a disadvantage compared to thin-film material. As an example, carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes can be considered as single crystals with high aspect ratios. Carbon nanotubes cannot be produced with macroscopically large dimensions using the current synthesis technology. This limits their use in the carbon industry. The two-dimensional graphene crystal structure has several properties that are unmatched (such as strength, electrical conduction and heat conductivity) and it can grow in an area of a very large size. Combining bottom-up with top-down can lead to exciting future application possibilities.

How is graphene transformed into carbon nanotubes

For carbon nanotubes to be formed, graphene and the carbon atoms are manipulated into a thin cylinder. The graphene sheets that are used to produce nanotubes have a two-dimensional structure because graphene has only one atom thickness.
New graphene and carbon nanotube catalyst can ignite a clean-energy revolution

Researchers have developed promising graphene/carbon nanotube catalysers to better control chemical reactions important for the production of hydrogen fuel.

Fuel cells, water electrolyzers and fuel cells that are efficient and cheap will be at the core of the hydrogen fuel economy. This is one the most promising alternatives to fossil fuels. The electrocatalysts that are used in these devices make them work. Developing low-cost, efficient electrocatalysts will be crucial for making hydrogen fuel viable. Researchers from Aalto University created a new kind of catalyst material for these technologies.

The team, in collaboration with CNRS, created a graphene-carbon-nanotube hybrid that is highly porous and contains single atoms known to act as good catalysts. Carbon nanotubes are allotropes, or two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions of carbon that are each one-atom thick. Carbon nanotubes and graphene are more popular than traditional materials in the industry and academia due to their exceptional performance. The world has shown great interest. They developed an easy and scalable way to grow all these nanomaterials together and combine their properties into a single product.

The substrate usually acts as a support for the catalyst. Researchers ignore the substrate’s role in the final reaction of the catalyst. But for this type of catalyst, they found that it plays an important part in its efficiency. The researchers discovered that the porous nature of the material allowed it to access more catalyst sites located at the interface between the substrate and the material. The researchers developed a new electrochemical microscopy analysis method to determine how the interface contributed to the catalytic process and to produce the most potent catalyst. They hope their research on how the matrix influences the catalytic activities of porous material will provide the basis for rational design and guidance for future electrochemical energy devices.

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