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Overview of germanium oxide Germanium dioxide, also known as germanium dioxide (GeO2) has the molecular formula of GeO2, while the electronic formula of the compound is the same for carbon dioxide. The powder is white or colorless. The hexagonal crystal system is soluble in water at low temperatures (and stable) but the tetragonal system is insoluble. The transformation temperature is 10.33. It is mainly used in the production of metal germanium.

Is germanium dioxide acidic or alkaline
It is not acidic at all. Oxides containing germanium, lead and tin; amphoteric compounds. The Edexcel specification appears to include germanium, a completely unimportant oxide, but excludes tin, a potentially more important oxide.
Germanium dioxide, although it is low-toxic in small doses, can be toxic to the kidneys at higher levels.
Germanium oxide is used in “miracle” cures and certain dietary supplements. High doses cause germanium poisoning.
Is germanium dioxide amphiphilic?
Germanium monoxide GeO (Germanium Oxide) is a mixture of germanium with oxygen. Is germanium dioxide ionic? Germanium dioxide (also known as germanium or germanium salt) is an inorganic chemical compound with the formula GeO2. It is ampholy soluable in acid as germanium salt (II), and soluble with alkali in “tri-hydro germanate”, or in “germanate”, which contains Ge (OH) 3 ion.

What is germanium oxide made of?
Hexagonal and tetragonal hexagonal crystals share the same structure of b quartz. In rutile super-quartz, germanium coordinates six. Germanium dioxide can be converted from one structure to another by applying high pressure. Amorphous Germanium Dioxide is transformed into six-coordinate germanium. Germanium oxide with a hexagonal structure has a higher water solubility than rutile germanium dioxide. When water is contacted, germanic acid forms. When germanium oxide and germanium powder is heated together at 1,000degC, it can produce germanium monoxide.

How is the germanium oxide prepared?
Germanium oxide is also used to produce polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) resin and other compounds of germanium. It is used to produce certain phosphors as well as semiconductor materials.
It is produced by melting germanium chloride or heating and oxidizing germanium. Using metal and other germanium compound as raw materials, poly can be prepared to produce optical glass-phosphors. These can then be used as conversion catalysts in petroleum refinement, dehydrogenation or gasoline ratio adjustment.
The germanium oxide is also used as a polymerization catalyst. Glass that contains germanium dioxide is highly dispersed and has high refractive index. It can also be used to make wide-angle lenses and cameras. In the past few decades, the technology has advanced to the point that germanium dioxide can be used in many different industries, including the pharmaceutical industry, the production of PET resins and electronic equipment, as well the production of germanium compounds. Like organic germanium (Ge-132), it is toxic and shouldn’t be taken.

What are the applications of germanium dioxide?
Both germanium, and its glass-oxide GeO2, are transparent for the infrared range. Infrared glass is used for night vision cameras, thermal imaging, luxury cars, and military vehicles. GeO2 has the highest mechanical strength of any other infrared-transparent glass. It is therefore ideal for rugged military uses.

The optical materials used for fibers, waveguides, and other optical devices are a mixture (silicon-germanium). By controlling the ratio between elements, the refractive indices can be controlled precisely. Glass made of silicon germanium has a greater refractive index and lower viscosity than glass made from pure silicon. Germania replaces the titanium dioxide silica as the dopant of silica fibers. This eliminates the need for heat treatment which can make the fibers brittle.

Germanium oxide can be used to produce polyethylene terephthalate, and also other germanium compounds. It can be used as a source of raw materials for certain semiconductors and phosphors.

Germanium dioxide, also known as germanium dioxide, is used to prevent undesirable diatoms from growing in algae cultures. The contamination of diatoms that grow relatively quickly usually interferes with or even inhibits the growth rate of original algae strains. Diatoms absorb GeO2, causing silicon to be substituted by germanium during the diatom biochemical process. This leads to a significant decrease or even the complete elimination in growth rate for diatoms. Non-diatom algal species are not affected by this. The concentration of germanium oxide in the culture media is typically 1-10 mg/L, depending on contamination stage and type.

A fast charge/discharge and wide-temperature battery with a Germanium Oxide layer on a TiC Matrix MXene as anode

It is important to have a rapid charge/discharge second battery in electric vehicles and portable electronic devices. Germanium has a greater potential for fast charge/discharge than other intercalation battery types due to its metallic property and ease of alloying with Lithium. A 2D composite electrode based on a homogeneous and amorphous GeO layers bonded to TiC MXenes has been successfully developed for the industry in order to accommodate a volume change over 300%. The MXene matrix has an expanded interlayer area that accommodates the limited isotropic growth of the ultrathin, stress-released GeO layer. A battery with a charge/discharge speed of 3 min (20 C) was achieved due to improved e/Li conductivity in both MXene (metallic reduced Ge) and metallic reduced Ge. The battery was able to retain a high capacity of 1048.1mAh/g with a Coulombic efficacy (CE), of 99.8%, at 0.5 C. This was after 500 cycles. The capacity under 1.0 C was 929.6mAh/g and the CE was 99.6%. (0.02% capacity degeneration per cycle) After ultra-long cycling (1000 cycles). The capacity almost doubled from 372 mAh/g to 671.6 mAh/g when compared with graphite at 0.1 C under 5.0 C, and the capacity reached 300.5 mAh/g after 1000 cycles under 10.0 C. Due to the low energy barrier at the interface, an efficient alloying process occurs under cold conditions. This prevents Li plating from occurring on the electrode surface. After 100 cycles, the battery showed high capacities of 631,6, 333,9, and 841,7 mAh/g in -20,-40, and-60 degC. This shows a wide tolerance to temperature. After 200 cycles, a battery with a full cell and LiNiMnCoO was able to achieve a capacity of 536.6 mAh/g. It was also possible to achieve a high retention of capacity for a pouch cell with ten full cycles. The composite has a high-rate capability, as well as a wide temperature range, scalable manufacturing, and comparatively low costs.

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