Graphite electrodes are used primarily in the EAF steelmaking process for melting scrap steel. The electrode made of graphite is resistant to high temperatures. An electric arc furnace can heat the electrode to 3000 degrees Fahrenheit. That’s half the temperature of the earth. You can find electrode sizes ranging in size from 75 mm to maximum 750 mm and as long as 2800 mm.
These are key indicators for graphite electrode performance and quality: bulk density db; electrical resistivity, bending strength and elastic modulus E. The thermal expansion coefficient is also an indicator. Ash content A% is another important indicator. These graphite-electrode indicators, as well as the differences among different manufacturing processes and standards in raw materials, are used to determine whether graphite is divided into three types: ordinary power graphite (RP), ultra high power graphite (UHP) and super-high power (UHP). Based on different functional requirements, the post-graphite electro production plant may add high-density or quasi-super-high graphite elchos (HD) to meet those users.
National standards are the foundation of each company’s corporate standards. Customers will create their own quality standards. A relative volume density measures the proportion of the quality control of the graphite-electrod material sample to its volume. The unit of measure is g/cm3. A working electrode’s volume density determines its strength and efficiency. It is generally true that the electrode’s resistivity will be lower if it has a greater volume density.
For measuring conductivity of electrodes, resistance is an indicator. The resistance of the conductor to current is measured when current passes through it. The resistance value of a conductor of length 1m with cross-sectional area 1m2 at a temperature of certain reduces the consumption.
It is an indicator of how well the graphite-structure material’s mechanical systems perform. Also known as the Flexural Strength, it is a measure of how strong the graphite structure material’s mechanical system performs. The object will bend to the immediate limit set by an external force to resist risk if the force exerted is parallel to the object’s axis. Capacity is measured in MPa. When using the network, high-strength joint and electrodes are less likely break.
Modulus of Elasticity is one important element of mechanical property. The modulus of elastic is an indicator to determine the elastic deformation potential of a material. This refers the stress-strain relationship within the elastic limit. Simply put, the larger the modulus, the more stress is required for elastic deformation.
An important thermal performance parameter is graphite’s temperature expansion coefficient. Chinese products are more stable if their thermal expansion coefficient is lower than it is. Performance can be reflected in the lower consumption of the product and the reduced fractures.
The term ash refers to any other component in solid products than carbon graphite. The raw material used has a direct impact on graphite’s ash contents. Low ash levels are found in petroleum coke needle coalke. The electrode’s ash contents should be no more than 0.5%. A ash content below 1% will have little effect on steelmaking. The performance of anti-oxidation systems of working electrodes will be affected by impurities found in the ash.
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