Overview of Nano diamond
The nano-diamonds, also known as diamond nanoparticles, are diamonds smaller than 1 micron in size and can be created by an explosive or meteorite strike. Due to its low cost, ease of large-scale synthetic, surface functionalization, high biocompatibility and easy synthesis, nano diamond has been extensively studied in the electronic, biological and quantum engineering areas.

Structure of nanodiamond

It is important to consider three main aspects of the structure and function of diamond nanoparticles. The shape of diamond nuclei was determined using a number of diffraction experiments. The diamond cage is the core of diamond nanoparticles. It is mostly made of carbon. Although the core structure is similar to that found in diamond, the diamond nanoparticles’ surface is almost identical to graphite. A recent study revealed that the surface is primarily composed of carbon. However, it also contains phenol, pyrrole and sulfonic, as well as small amounts of carboxylic, hydrol, and epoxy groups. Sometimes, there are defects in the structure of diamond-nanoparticles. Recent studies have shown that the frequency and size of nitrogen-vacancy centers decreases as the diamond nanoparticles grow in size.

Production methods for nano-diamond

Other than the explosion, other synthesis methods include hydrothermal, ion bombing, laser bombardment (microwave plasma chemical vapor deposit), ultrasonic and electrochemical. High-purity nanoparticles can also be produced by high-pressure and high-temperature graphite C3N4 decomposition. For commercial production of Nano Diamonds, the industry standard is detonation-synthesis. The most common explosive used to produce them is a mixture trinitrotoluene/hexose/monosaccharide.

Detonation is usually performed in an enclosed, oxygen-free stainless metal chamber. It produces a mixture Nano diamonds as well as other graphite compound averaging 5 nanometers. Nano diamonds can only be created by detonation synthesis if there is no oxygen. This happens at temperatures above 3000K and pressures over 15 GPa. To prevent the formation nanoparticles of diamond, the oxidation system must be rapidly cooled to increase the production of Nano-diamonds. This is because diamond is the most stable phase in such conditions. Detonation synthesizers use liquid coolants like water, water-based mousse and ice. Detonation results in synthesis, which is a mixture nano diamond particles and graphite carbon forms. Therefore, thorough cleaning must be done to remove all impurities. To remove SP2 and other metal impurities, either gaseous Ozone treatment or solution-phase nitric acid oxide oxidation are used.

Application prospect of Nano diamond

Nano diamond’s strength, hardness, thermal conductivity and biocompatibility are unique, making it a popular choice for precision polishing, lubrication and high-performance metal matrix composites.

Nano diamond is a material of rich characteristics and connotations. This is an area that presents great opportunities and challenges. Nano diamond is a product of years of research and production. This material can be used to produce raw materials for the defense industry, precision polishing industry, biomedicine, electronic, chemical, and other national economies. I believe there will be a wide application of Nano diamond in many industries in the near future.

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