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What is single-layer Graphene?
Single-layer Graphene is a two-dimensional honeycomb graphite made of one layer of carbon. The sp2 bond between carbon atoms makes it the thinnest, but stiffest, material in the universe (the fracture resistance is approximately 200 times higher than steel). It is almost completely transparent and absorbs only 2.3% light. The thermal conductivity of this material is up to 5300 W/m. K is higher than diamond and carbon nanotubes; the resistivity only 0.96×10-6 O.cm is currently the smallest resistivity in the world; graphene also has a high specific surface area (2630 m2/g). The graphene’s novel feature is that, in the absence dopings, the Fermi levels are located at the junction of the valence and conduction bands. At this point the electron’s mass is equal to 0, and so appears as a Dirac. Fermions can have excellent carrier conductivity and carry current densities of up to 200,000 cm2/V. The graphene conductivity is still present even without carrier transmission. S=e2/h. Its Hall effect at room temperature expands its original temperature range ten-fold. This shows unique carrier characteristics as well as excellent electrical qualities. The graphene’s unique electronic properties make it possible to confirm relativistic quantum-electrodynamic effects, which are hard to observe with particle physics.
The Application of Single-layer Graphene

Graphene, the most suitable material for creating nanoelectronics devices. The devices made from it are smaller and consume less power. They also transmit electrons more quickly. Graphene is a good material for high-frequency transistors. Even when only one hexagonal structure is present, graphene’s nanometer-scale stability is very important for developing molecular electronic devices. Single-electronic components prepared by electron beam printing and etching technology may break through the limits of traditional electronic technology, and have excellent application prospects in the fields of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, memory, and sensors, and are expected to be the development of ultra-high-speed computer chips. The medical industry will also benefit greatly from this breakthrough.

Graphene films with a single layer can also be made into microscopic filters to decompose gasses. In medical research, this thin, one-atom thick film can hold molecules to be observed and analyzed by electron microscopes. This will greatly help the medical community create new medical technologies. Graphene is able to detect gases with an external noise and accurately identify individual molecules. It has potential applications as chemical sensors and molecular probes.

Single-layer graphene is widely used as a semiconductor electronic package due to its excellent properties in terms of electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties.

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