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What is Hafnium Carbide? Hafnium carburide (HfC), a chemical compound composed of hafnium, is a combination of carbon and hafnium. It is known to be one of most refractory binary compound. The oxidation resistance of this compound is extremely low. At 430degC, oxidation begins. This compound might be seen in the heat shield of future spacecraft.
Carbonizations are usually devoid of carbon. Therefore, their composition is typically expressed as HfCx (x = 0,5 to 1,0). The crystal structure is cubic (salt).
Hafnium carburide is normally synthesized in an atmosphere of inertness or reduction with hafnium (HfO2) oxide and carbon. The reaction is carried out at a temperature between 1900 and 2300 degrees Celsius. Hafnium carburide can form solid solutions with many compounds such as ZrC or TaC. ).
The hafnium oxide (IV), which is obtained by reducing powdered hafnium with carbon, has a temperature of 18002000degC. To remove all the oxygen, it takes a lot of time. Chemical vapor deposition can also produce a coating of high purity HfC from a gas mix of methane (methane), hydrogen and vaporized chlorine chloride IV. HfC’s limited use is due to its technical complexity and high cost.
HfC-x undergoes a change from paramagnetism to diamagnetism when x is increased. TaC has the same structure as HfC but exhibits the opposite behavior.

What is hafnium carbide used for?
Hafnium carbide is an excellent material for rockets. It can also be used for ceramics, other industries and as the nose of space rockets which re-enter our atmosphere.

How powerful is hafnium carbide?
W-based or Mo-based alloys that are dispersed with Hafnium Carbide exhibit superior tensile strength and stress rupture properties than those that do not contain HfC. MoHfC is stronger than WHfC at 1400K pressure, based on density compensation.
Hafnium carbide has a density 12.7g/cm3 as well as a melting temp of 3890degC. It is the most melting point known among single compounds. Volume resistivity of hafnium carbide is 1.95×10-4O*cm (2990) and thermal expansion coefficient 6.73×10-6/. In general, hafnium (HfO2) is combined with carbon to create powders in an inert environment. Hafnium carburide can react at a temperature of 1900-2300°C and form a solid with many compounds. It is characterized by a high melting temperature and high elastic co-efficient, as well as good electrical and thermal conductivity.

Is hafnium carbide poisonous?
In studies on animals, the intraperitoneal routes of trichlorooxidation were toxic. There have been no reported cases of industrial poisoning. Carbide : Pure carbon is very low in toxicity for humans. It may be used as graphite and charcoal, or it can even be safely consumed.
Why does hafnium carburide have a melting point so high?
Hafnium carburide is resistant to corrosion as it forms an oxide layer on the surface. According to “Chemical World”, the mixed carbide of hafnium and tungsten has the highest melting points of all known compounds at 7,457° Fahrenheit (4125° Celsius).

Introduction to Hafnium: What is Hafnium exactly?
Hafnium can be found in zirconium containing minerals and co-exists naturally with zirconium. Hafnium shares many similarities with zirconium in nature. The amount of HfO2 found in zircon for industrial use is between 0.5-2 %. Beryllium zircon found in secondary zirconium can contain up to 15 percent HfO2. A metamorphic stone containing more than 5% HfO2 is also used to produce zircon. Both minerals have very small reserves, and they have never been used by the industry. Hafnium primarily is recovered during the production of zirconium.

Hafnium meltdown is essentially the same as zirconium meltdown, with five general steps.
First, the ore is decomposed. The first method is to chlorinate zircon in order to get (Zr Hf)Cl4. At 600, the zircon melts with zircon and NaOH. Over 90% of the (Zr Hf O2) is transformed into Na2 Zr Hf O3 and most of the siO2 is Na2SiO3, then removed by water. After dissolving in HNO3, the Na2 (Zr,Hf)O3 solution can be used to separate zirconium from hafnium. The colloid SiO2 makes extraction with solvents and separation difficult. 3Sinter the K2SiF6 and obtain K2(Zr, Hf )F6 after water immersion. The solution is able to separate hafnium from zirconium through fractional crystallization.

Separation of hafnium from zirconium is done by using a solvent extraction method with the MIBK (methylisobutylketone) and HNO3 (tributylphosphate) systems. Multi-stage fractionation using vapor pressure differences of HfCl4 or ZrCl4 melts at high pressure (above twenty atmospheres) is a technology that has been studied for a long time. This can eliminate secondary chlorination and reduce costs. Due to the corrosion of (ZrHf)Cl4 or HCl it is hard to find fractionation columns that are suitable. They will also lower the quality of ZrCl4 or HfCl4 as well as increase purification costs.

Third step is the preparation of crude HfCl4 to be reduced. The fourth stage is the purification of HfCl4 followed by magnesium reduction. This is the same process as purification and reduction ZrCl4 with the resultant semi-finished hafnium. The fifth step involves vacuum distillation to remove MgCl2 as well as recover the excess metal magnesium. The final product will be sponge metal hafnium. If the reducing agents are sodium or magnesium instead, the fifth step will be water immersion.

To avoid spontaneous combustion, take extra care to remove the hafnium crucible sponge. The sponge hafnium pieces need to be broken up into small pieces. These pieces will be used as electrodes for consumables. It is also important to avoid spontaneous combustion when breaking the sponge hafnium. The iodide decomposition technique is used to purify sponge hafnium in the same way as zirconium and titanium. The control conditions differ slightly from zirconium. The temperature of the sponge hafnium in the iodination chamber is 600degC. Meanwhile, the temperature of the wire in the center of the tank is 1600degC. . Hafnium is processed and formed by forging and extrusion. Hafnium is primarily used to produce control rods for reactors.
Hafnium application
Pure hafnium exhibits plasticity, is easy to process, has high temperature resistance, and resists corrosion. It is a key material for the atomic energy sector. Hafnium, with its large thermal neutron section, is an ideal neutron absorption device that can be used for a control rod or protection device in an atomic power reactor. Hafnium is used in rocket propellers. In the electrical industry, cathodes for X ray tubes can also be produced. The alloy hafnium is used in the manufacture of tool steel, resistance materials and rocket nozzles. Hafnium adds heat-resistant properties to tungsten, tantalum, and molybdenum. HFC’s high hardness and melting temperature make it a suitable cemented carbide. The melting temperature of 4TaC*HfC reaches 4215degC. This is the highest melting temperature compound.

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