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Copper(II) sulfate, also known as cupric sulfate pentahydrate and blue vitriol, is a widely used chemical. It is an effective fungicide, germicide, and copper fertilizer, as well as being a useful metalworking lubricant and electroplating bath additive. It is harmful if inhaled or ingested and can cause skin irritation with prolonged contact. It is a very important industrial salt and is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of many other copper compounds.
American Elements produces copper(II) sulfate to a variety of standard grades when applicable, including Mil Spec (military grade), ACS, Reagent and Technical Grade, Food, Agricultural and Pharmaceutical Grade, Optical Grade, USP and EP/BP (European Pharmacopoeia/British Pharmacopoeia). In addition, Copper Sulfate is available with certified purity and meets applicable ASTM testing standards. Additional technical, research and safety (MSDS) information is available as well as a Reference Calculator for converting relevant units of measurement.
Unlike most other metallic copper compounds, which are easily soluble in water, cupric sulfate is anhydrous when solid. This is due to the fact that it decomposes before reaching its melting point: at 63 degrees Celsius it loses two molecules of water, and all five at 110 degrees Celsius. As a result, it is not readily obtainable as a single crystal, although the growth of crystals of this compound has been achieved in molten copper sulfate. The procedure for doing this involves dissolving powdered CuSO4 in a non-aqueous solvent, maintaining the temperature at 200°C, and sampling the solution to determine its copper content and sulfate content iodometrically or gravimetrically.