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A platinum rod is a long, straight strand of the precious metal. It is used in a variety of applications including surgical tools, guidewires for catheters and in cardiac stents. It is also found in radio-frequency ablation (RFA) balloons, which helps direct the balloon to the area that needs treatment.

We show that the addition of a small amount of a soluble copper ion-based additive to the electrolyte accelerates the formation of porous platinum. This is a consequence of an effective change in the platinum redox potential that shifts from the chemical reaction-slow electron transfer coupling (0deg) to the reversible charge transfer (9og) in the range between -0.8 and -1.1 V.

This shift of the redox potential is attributed to the ion-pairing or complexation of the platinum ions with the additive. EDX and SEM results indicate the presence of different ionic species in the platinum porous layer. The EDX spectrum indicates that the copper ion is mainly present in the cathode-side platinum layer. The SEM images reveal the cauliflower-like structure of the platinum layer.

The SEM results confirm the presence of different ionic species and the existence of a multi-stage process for the generation of the platinum porosity. This is in contrast to the conventional picture that assumes a direct four-electron reduction of platinum ions. In the Fig. 6g CVs, the staircase CV wave of oxidation observed in the platinum microelectrode in the interval between -0.8 and -0.5 V disappears in the system containing the additive and is replaced by a tail of oxidation.

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