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C onvert coal into Nano graphite Powder A team of international researchers has proven that pulverized coke can be transformed into high-value coal in only 15 minutes. Nano graphite . Researchers explain in their research, published in the journal Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects that microwave ovens are used to create a conducive environment for raw coal to be converted into Nano-graphite. Nano graphite has many uses, from lubricants to lithium-ion batteries and fire extinguishers.
They believe that this “metal assisted microwave processing one step method” is a relatively simple and inexpensive method to convert coal in Wyoming’s Powder River Basin. According to TeYu Chen’s team at the University of Wyoming despite previous studies showing that microwaves could reduce coal moisture and remove sulfur as well as other minerals but most of these methods required special chemical pretreatment of the raw coal. The experiment only required the raw coal of the Powder River Basin to be pulverized. After that, put the coal powder on copper foil. Seal it in glass containers with a mix of argon hydrogen gas. Finally, put it in the microwave.
Chris Masi is the lead author. He stated that “by cutting the copper into a fork form, microwave radiation can generate sparks. These sparks can create extremely high temperatures of over 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit in just a few second.” The high temperature transforms pulverized coke. This process also involves copper foil, hydrogen and polycrystalline graphite. The team (which includes researchers from New York Nepal and China) believes this new coal-to-graphite conversion method can improve and be implemented at a large scale in order to produce higher quality graphite materials.

What? It is a good idea to use a bilingual translator Graphite
Graphite This is a natural form of crystalline Carbon. It is found as a native mineral in metamorphic or igneous rocks. Graphite can be described as a mineral that is characterized by extremes. It is extremely soft and cleaves easily with very little pressure. It also has a low specific gravity. It is very resistant to heat. This extreme property gives it a variety of uses in manufacturing and metallurgy.
Graphite, a mineral, is formed when carbon is heated and pressed in Earth’s crust or upper mantle. To produce graphite, temperatures and pressures between 750°C and 75,000 lbs per square inch are needed. These correspond to granulite facies.
Most of the graphite found on Earth’s surface was created at the convergent plates boundaries when organic-rich limestones and shales were subjected under the pressure and heat of regional metamorphism. This results in marble, schist, or gneiss containing tiny crystals of graphite.
If the graphite concentration is high, the rocks can be crushed into flakes and then processed using specific gravity separation (or froth floatation) to remove the lower density graphite. The product is called flake graphite.
Metamorphism can lead to the formation of graphite. The organic material of coal is primarily composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. The heat generated by metamorphism vaporizes oxygen, hydrogen nitrogen and sulfur, destroying the organic molecules. What remains is almost pure carbon that crystallizes to mineral graphite.
This graphite appears in “seams,” which correspond with the original layer coal. This material is mined as “amorphous Graphite.” This is not the correct use of “amorphous,” as it has a crystalline composition. The material is similar in appearance to coal lumps, without the banding.
Diamonds and Graphite
Graphite Diamond and carbon are two minerals that contain carbon. Diamond is formed in the mantle by extreme heat and pressure. Most of the graphite that is found on Earth’s surfaces was formed at lower temperatures and under less pressure in the crust. Graphite has the same chemical composition as diamond but is structurally very different.
Carbon atoms form a hexagonal graphite network that forms sheets with atom-thickness. The sheets are not well connected, and can easily be cleaved or slid over each other when a slight force is applied. This is the reason graphite has a very low level of hardness. It also gives it its perfect cleavage and its slippery feeling.
Carbon atoms of diamonds, however, are linked in a frameworks-like structure. Each carbon atom has strong covalent bonds that link it to four other carbons in a three dimensional network. The arrangement of the atoms keeps them firmly in position and makes diamond a hard material.

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