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Boron nitride The first application of hexagonal Boron Nitride, or hBN, was as a lubricant for high temperatures. The structure and properties of hBN are similar to those of graphite. Because it is white and has a similar appearance, it is known as white-colored graphite.The hexagonal structure of boron is nitride. It is the most common graphite-like lattice. However, there are also amorphous forms. Other crystal forms of Boron Nitride exist, in addition to hexagonal crystals. These include: rhombohedral Boron Nitride (abbreviation, r-BN), Cubic Boron Nitride (abbreviation, cBN), and Wurtzite Type Boron Nitride. There are even two-dimensional crystals of boron Nitride, similar to graphene.
Wentorf created cubic BN first in 1957. Pure hexagonal boron nitride can be directly converted into cubic boron nitride when the temperature is near or above 1700degC, and the pressure is between 11-12 GPa. The use of a catalyst can reduce both the temperature and the pressure required for the transition. The most common catalysts include alkali metals and alkaline nitrides. Ammonium borate is the least expensive catalyst, but also requires the lowest pressure and temperature. At 1500, the required pressure is 5GPa and at 600700 degrees Fahrenheit the pressure is 6GPa. Although the addition of catalysts can significantly reduce the temperature and pressure required for the transition, they are still quite high. The preparation equipment for this catalyst is complex and expensive, and the industrial applications are limited.

Multiple preparation methods of Boron Nitride
1.Chemical vapor synthesis
Sokolowski was the first to use pulsed-plasma technology in 1979 for the preparation of cubic boron (CBN), at low temperatures, and under low pressure. Equipment is simple, and the process can be easily realized. This has led to rapid development. There are many vapor deposition techniques. In the past, it was mainly thermal chemical vapour deposition. The experimental device consists of a heat-resistant glass tube and a heater. The substrate may be heated using a hot-wall CVD furnace or by high-frequency electromagnetic induction (cold-wallCVD). The reaction gases decompose on the surface the substrate at high temperatures, while a chemical reactions occurs to deposit film. The reaction is a gas mixture of BCl3 and B2H4.
Hydrothermal synthesis
Water is used as a reaction medium to dissolve insoluble and insoluble substances in an autoclave environment of high temperature and high pressure. The reaction can be recrystallized. It is also carried out within a sealed container, which prevents the volatilization. This method is used at low temperatures to synthesize cubic Boron Nitride.
3.Benzene Thermal Synthesis
The benzene thermochemical synthesis, which is a new method for synthesis of nanomaterials at low temperatures that emerged in the last few years, has been widely praised. The conjugated structure of benzene makes it an ideal solvent for solvothermal syntheses. It has been successfully adapted to benzene thermo synthesis, including the reaction formula.
The reaction temperature for this technology is only 450degC. It can also produce a metastable crystalline phase, which can only exist at ultra-high pressures and temperatures. This method is able to produce cubic boron at low temperature under low pressure. The method is still under experimental research and has great application potential.
4.Self propagating technology
The energy needed from the outside is used for high exothermic reactions. The system then reacts locally, forming a chemical reaction wave (combustion front). The chemical reactions are accelerated with its own heat and spread across the entire system. It is an inorganic method that has been around for a long time. However, this particular method was used to synthesize boron oxide only in the last few years.

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