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The melting point (or liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes from solid to liquid. This is the temperature at which a solid is no longer resistant to further thermal deformation, and the crystal structure disappears to form a continuous molten phase. The melting point of a material is a function of temperature and pressure, but is usually specified at a standard pressure such as 1 atmosphere or 100 kPa.

The high melting point of aluminium fluoride (AlF3) is a result of the ionic bond formed in the compound, which is stronger than the covalent bond found in Aluminium Chloride (AlCl3). This is because the cation in AlF3 donates its three outer electrons to three fluorine atoms, forming a triple positive Aluminium ion and three single negative Fluoride ions. In contrast, Aluminium chloride has a covalent structure with a polar group.

In the gas phase, aluminium fluoride has trigonal molecules of D3h symmetry with bond lengths of 163 pm. Like all metal trifluorides, it evaporates rapidly to give dimers upon evaporation from a liquid state.

The concentration of aluminum fluoride (AlF3) in the electrolyte of the aluminium production cell is an important factor that affects current efficiency and energy consumption. This paper presents a new kind of model which can be used to determine the required cell voltage by adjusting the target superheat and the AlF3 addition rate. It can also predict the resulting AlF3 concentration from the liquid-liquid solution, although this prediction is influenced by shrinkage of the mixture.

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