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A titanate is a compound that contains titanium and at least one other metallic element. It is used in a variety of applications including nonlinear optics, photorefractive materials and piezoelectric ceramic materials.

Metal-titanate compounds are emerging as promising antimicrobials against oral and skin bacterial infections. They inhibit bacteria by binding and sequestering a variety of metal ions with high affinity, thus delivering these ions to the bacterial site of infection with a lower systemic toxicity.

However, understanding the mechanisms of this effect is still a challenge. First, the mechanism of delivering metal ions appears to be less well understood; this may be because it is difficult to directly deliver large amounts of metal to cells via a metallic nanoparticle.

Second, the particulate nature of these particles makes cellular effects challenging to measure when optical density-dependent means are used. This is especially true for micro-titanates, which settle quickly in solution and are a source of interference for plate-reader assays.

As a result, the ability to measure in-vitro effects using OD-independent methods becomes important. The use of a NanoDrop(r) spectrophotometric assay, which uses a 1 mL volume to measure the OD instead of a 50-100 mL sample, has been shown to mitigate this issue (Figure 7).

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